The colony that will march into the future. The first information about this settlement appeared in 1630. That jagged, and rockbound Atlantic Ocean coastline is a mixture of bays, inlets, sandy beaches, odd-shaped islands - all ending in granite cliffs in the far north. Before the arrival of European colonists on the eastern shore of New England, the area around Massachusetts Bay was the territory of several Algonquian-speaking peoples, including the Massachusetts, Nausets, and Wampanoags. [64] Lesser offenses were heard in county courts or by commissioners appointed for hearing minor disputes. The General Court was made into a bicameral assembly in 1644. See Also: 10 Facts about Massachusetts. The southeastern boundary with the Plymouth Colony was first surveyed in 1639 and accepted by both colonies in 1640. They then demanded that the charter be enforced to the letter, which Governor Winthrop pointed out was impractical given the growing number of freemen. By the end of the war, most of the Indigenous population of southern New England made peace treaties with the colonists. Massachusetts authorities arrested Andros in April 1689 after the 1688 Glorious Revolution in England, and they re-established government under the forms of the vacated charter. The charter of 1691 merged the Plymouth colony and Maine into the Massachusetts Bay Colony. [111] The colony and later the province and state retained control of Maine until it was granted statehood in 1820. [100] Governor John Winthrop owned a few Indian slaves,[101] and Governor Simon Bradstreet owned two black slaves. The Puritans established a theocratic government with the franchise limited to church members. The “Great Migration” began the next year, and by 1640 the Colony’s population approached 20,000 persons in numerous towns across the Bay region. Construction improved in later years, and houses began to be sheathed in clapboard, with thatch or plank roofs and wooden chimneys. The colonists initially had good relationships with the local Indians, but frictions developed which led to the Pequot War (1636–38) and then to King Philip's War (1675–78), after which most of the Indians in southern New England made peace treaties with the colonists (apart from the Pequot tribe, whose survivors were largely absorbed into the Narragansett and Mohegan tribes following the Pequot War). [64] These laws formed the nucleus of colonial legislation until independence and contained some provisions later incorporated into the United States Constitution, such as the ideas of equal protection and double jeopardy. Massachusetts lost these territories in the 1660s, when Connecticut and Rhode Island received their royal charters. They lacked a legal basis to continue their government, yet it remained intact until its official revocation in 1686.[39]. [56] They also enacted a law specifying that only those men who "are members of some of the churches" in the colony were eligible to become freemen and gain the vote. [32], English colonists took control of New Netherland in 1664, and the crown sent royal commissioners to New England from the new Province of New York to investigate the status of the government and legal system of the colonies. [37], Two delegates from Massachusetts Bay were sent to London to meet with the Lords of Trade when the crown threatened the colony with a quo warranto. Cape Ann juts into the Gulf of Maine, providing harbors for fishermen plying the fishing banks to the east, and Boston's harbor provided secure anchorage for seagoing commercial vessels. This changed in 1641, when the Massachusetts Bay Colony passed slave laws differentiating slave labor from the indentured servants’ contract labor, which took away the enslaved’s rights. The Puritan penchant for simpler dress had begun before their departure for America. Claims were disputed in this area for many years, particularly between Connecticut and Rhode Island. When these counties were created, they were a part of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, which would remain separate from the Plymouth Colony and that colony's counties until 1691. If an adult died without issue, his (or her) name could be carried on when the siblings of the deceased named children in his or her memory. Charles dissolved Parliament in 1629, whereupon the company's directors met to consider the possibility of moving the company's seat of governance to the colony. These areas provided the bulk of the migration, although colonists also came from other regions of England. Judicial appeals were to be decided by a joint session, since otherwise the assistants would be in the position to veto attempts to overturn their own decisions. Randolph reported to London that the General Court of Massachusetts Bay claimed that the King had no right to interfere with their commercial dealings. [18], Archbishop William Laud was a favorite advisor of King Charles I and a dedicated Anglican, and he sought to suppress the religious practices of Puritans and other nonconforming beliefs in England. The main cities of the Massachusetts Colony were Boston, Quincy, Plymouth, Salem, Lexington and Concord. They established Boston Latin School in 1635 and, in the following year, Harvard University, founded with a grant from the General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, both established with the idea of generating well-educated Puritan ministers. Geography. The Hull Mint produced oak tree, willow tree, and pine tree shillings. The lower courts were also responsible for issuing licenses and for matters such as probate. Geography. The land-use patterns of the Indigenous people included plots cleared for agricultural purposes and woodland territories for hunting game. The colonial Puritans were stricter in many ways than their English counterparts, and, oddly enough, after the Puritans fled England to … Greylock at 3,491 feet, located in the county/subdivision of Berkshire (source: U.S. Geological Survey) Central Point: Located in Worcester County approx. Fornication was generally punished by fines and pressure to marry; a woman who gave birth to an illegitimate child could also be fined. Geography. The protracted struggle for supremacy between monarch and Parliament reached new heights in 1629, when Charles I disbanded the rival body and ruled alone for 11 years. [63] This document consisted of 100 civil and criminal laws based upon the social sanctions recorded in the Bible. The dominion was governed by Sir Edmund Andros without any local representation beyond his own hand-picked councillors, and it was extremely unpopular throughout New England. Some Indians captured in the Pequot War were enslaved, with those posing the greatest threat being transported to the West Indies and exchanged for goods and slaves. This new charter additionally extended voting rights to non-Puritans, an outcome that Mather had tried to avoid. What was the geography of Massachusetts Bay Colony? [63], On the other hand, Massachusetts Bay was the first colony to legalize slavery with provision 91 of the Massachusetts Body of Liberties which developed protections for people unable to perform public service. [106] It is known in Massachusetts as the "Old Colony Line", and is still visible as the boundary between Norfolk County to the north and Bristol and Plymouth Counties to the south.[107]. [102] The Body of Liberties enacted in 1641 included rules governing the treatment and handling of slaves. Where is Massachusetts Bay Colony Located? The Massachusetts Bay Colony became the first English chartered colony whose board of governors did not reside in England. Notable exceptions were a bridge across the Mystic River constructed in 1638, and another over the Saugus River, whose upkeep costs were subsidized by the colony. Massachusetts Bay Colony (MBC) was chartered in 1629 and encompassed the area of modern-day Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Vermont, Maine and New York. The Massachusetts Bay Colony was founded at Boston in 1629. [47] A town center that was well laid out would be fairly compact, with a tavern, school, possibly some small shops, and a meeting house that was used for civic and religious functions. The deputies learned of the provisions that the general court should make all laws, and that all freemen should be members of the general court. by a meeting of the council of assistants,[vague] the general court ordered each town to send two representatives known as deputies to meet with the court to discuss matters of taxation. Massachusetts Bay Colony. At the point where the Pemigewasset River, the Merrimack's principal tributary, meets the Winnipesaukee River local Indians guided the party to the outlet of Lake Winnipesaukee, incorrectly claiming that as the Merrimack's source. Its first meeting in America was held in October 1630, but it was attended by only eight freemen. The grant was similar to that of the Virginia Company in 1609, the patentees being joint proprietors with rights of ownership and government. Charles granted the new charter on 4 March 1628/9,[27] superseding the land grant and establishing a legal basis for the new English colony at Massachusetts, appointing Endecott as governor. John Cotton, and other leaders zealously sought to prevent any independence of religious views, and many with differing religious beliefs—including Roger Williams of Salem and Anne Hutchinson of Boston, as well as unrepentant Quakers and Anabaptists—were banished.  Massachusetts Bay Colony ... Geography Massachusetts is a beautiful colony with mountains, thousands of trees, and rivers. ", All of these crimes were drawn from the records of Essex County during the colonial period. By the mid-1640s, Massachusetts Bay Colony had grown to more than 20,000 inhabitants. The King feared that this would stir problems within the colony and attempted to reassure the colonists that their private interests would not be infringed upon. [105] The colony's claims were large, but the practicalities of the time meant that they never actually controlled any land further west than the Connecticut River valley. The grant empowering the group to create a colony in Massachusetts was granted by King Charles I to the Massachusetts Bay Company. By 1660, the colony's merchant fleet was estimated at 200 ships and, by the end of the century, its shipyards were estimated to turn out several hundred ships annually. Certain businesses were quick to thrive, notably shipbuilding, fisheries, and the fur and lumber trades. PLAY. Some of the major rivers include the Charles, Merrimack and the Connecticut rivers. [70] Evidence was sometimes based on hearsay and superstition. [110] The current boundary between Massachusetts and New Hampshire was not fixed until 1741. [55] The process by which individuals became members of one of the colony's churches involved a detailed questioning by the church elders of their beliefs and religious experiences; as a result, only individuals whose religious views accorded with those of the church leadership were likely to become members and gain the ability to vote in the colony. Question: Which Massachusetts Bay Colony resident was a poet whose work was published in England without her knowledge? [121][122], English possession in North America between 1628 and 1684, The 1606 charter did not assign names to the regional companies or councils, but the April 4, 1629 charter granted by King Charles I erroneously asserted that the 1606 charter had given the name "Council established at Plymouth in the county of Devon" to the council governing the "second Colony. How democratic was the Massachusetts Bay Colony? Currently though, the main sources of employment are farming, fishing, and shipbuilding. Massachusetts Bay Colony. It was chartered on October 7, 1691 by William III and Mary II, the joint monarchs of the kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland. [49] Men who lost their wives often remarried fairly quickly, especially if they had children needing care. The charter provided for an additional council of 13 persons named "Council of Virginia" which had overarching responsibility for the combined enterprise. What religion was practiced in Massachusetts colony? [115] The most significant exception was the eastern boundary with Rhode Island, which required extensive litigation, including Supreme Court rulings, before it was finally resolved in 1862. In addition, Puritans believed that churchgoers should read the Bible for themselves, and thus the education of children was required. King William III issued a charter in 1691, despite efforts by Massachusetts agents to revive the old colonial charter. Most of the state lies in the New England Province region of the Appalachian Highlands region. Greylock at 3,491 feet, located in the county/subdivision of Berkshire (source: U.S. Geological Survey) Central Point: Located in Worcester County approx. White has been called "the father of the Massachusetts Colony" because of his influence in establishing this settlement, even though he never emigrated. In 1691, the Plymouth Colony and the Massachusetts Bay Colony combined to form the Province of Massachusetts. While the company was intended to transfer the wealth of the New World to stockholders in England, the settlers … (Note that the "first Colony" and the "second Colony" overlapped. The poor quality of this soil made the region difficult for the Colonists to farm efficiently. Dow, pp. [41], Life could be quite difficult in the early years of the colony. [98] The population of Massachusetts remained largely English in character until the 1840s. [96] Few titled nobility emigrated, even though some supported the emigration politically and financially and also acquired land holdings in Massachusetts and other colonies. Its governors were elected by an the electorate limited to freemen who had been formally admitted to the local church. It was formed more than 500 hundred years ago. The protracted struggle for supremacy between monarch and Parliament reached new heights in 1629, when Charles I disbanded the rival body and ruled alone for 11 years. Only those who could testify to a “work of grace” in their lives were permitted to choose the governor and the members of the lawmaking council, and those whose religious beliefs did not conform to the Puritans' were expelled. The Atlantic ocean feeds into the Massachusetts bay, which makes trade with neighboring colonies simpler and more efficient. John Winthrop and Deputy Gov. Dense amounts of forested areas has lead to establish a strong lumber industry as well as good trapping and hunting grounds. Following the revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685, the colony also saw an influx of French Protestant Huguenots. The Massachusetts frontier was particularly hard hit: several communities in the Connecticut and Swift River valleys were abandoned. Among the communities that the Puritans established were Boston, Charlestown, Dorchester, Medford, Watertown, Roxbury, and Lynn. [53] They formed the first council of assistants and voted (contrary to the terms of the charter) that they should elect the governor and deputy from among themselves. [113] This line, south of the present boundary, was protested by Connecticut, but stood until the 1690s, when Connecticut performed its own survey. This is a beautiful colony with mountains, trees, rivers and rocky soil that was suited. Maine, Massachusetts, history persecution of Quakers 86 ], the General the! 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