Motherhood grew out of the ancestral veneration that formed part of the belief system in West Africa. Despite the trauma and rigours of slavery, a handful of contemporary sources suggest that black female slaves fought to maintain their roles as mothers. A similar phrase appears in National Library of Jamaica, Kingston, Edward East to Roger Hope Elletson, 23 Sept. 1778, Robert Hope Elletson Letterbook (1773–80). whenever they find themselves pregnant, endeavour to procure abortion, by every means in their power, in which they are too often assisted by the knowery of others’.7777 Barbara Bush, Slave Women in Caribbean Society 1650–1838 (1990) [hereafter Bush, Slave Women], pp. Thomas Roughley, The Jamaica Planter's Guide; or, A System for Planting and Managing a Sugar Estate, or other Plantations in that Island, and throughout the British West Indies in General (1823), p. 118. Thomas Cooper, Facts illustrative of the Condition of the Negro Slaves in Jamaica with Notes in an Appendix (1824), p. 10; Jonathan Dalby, Crime and Punishment in Jamaica: A Quantitative Analysis of the Assize Court Records, 1756–1856 (Kingston, 2000), pp. “I thought, let me just see if any of my fellow countrymen were actually there,” she says. By law, slaves in Jamaica were completely free by 1838. Learn about our remote access options. Imported foodstuffs sometimes added to the slaves’ diets, but subsistence problems occurred when periods of war reduced imported dry provisions (wheat, flour, other grains) from North America, notably during the American War of Independence.1515 In severe cases, when women lack a good blood supply and their uterus fails to contract properly, the risks of a difficult birth increase. The evidence for the post‐abolition nineteenth‐century British Caribbean suggests that breastfeeding periods varied considerably but that the average nursing cycle lasted less than in earlier, pre‐natalist, periods – about eighteen months.6565 They provide an important means of protecting the health of mother and child. They were stone age farmers. Clayton, Roy, ‘Jamaica's Struggle for a Self‐Perpetuating Slave Population: Demographic, Social and Religious Changes on Golden Grove Plantation, 1812–1832’, Journal of Caribbean Studies, vi (1988), [hereafter Wood and Clayton, ‘Jamaica's Struggle’], 290. Data for Worthy Park plantation, in St Thomas‐in‐the‐Vale parish, shows that by 1834 the birth rate among creole mothers had surpassed the creole death rate, indicating that slaves on that sugar estate were approaching natural reproductive increase.3838 SLAVES AND SLAVERY IN JAMAICA. The link between concentration camps and slave plantations has been suggested by Bush, Slave Women, pp. Yet evidence suggests that the all‐important protein rations to slave families were mostly consumed by men. Ward, British West Indian Slavery, pp. Virtually nothing is known about levels of abortion and infanticide in West Africa during the era of the transatlantic slave trade: see Paul Lovejoy and David Trotman, ‘Enslaved Africans and their Expectations of Slave Life in the Americas: Towards a Reconsideration of Models of “Creolisation”’, in Questioning Creole: Creolisation Discourses in Caribbean Culture, ed. Lactation periods of two, three or four years have been interpreted as carry‐overs from traditions in West African societies.6262 It can be hypothesized that this increase in reproduction and reduction in lactation periods occurred because free black women received better nutrition and endured less demanding work schedules than when most of them had been tied to the punishing work regimes of the sugar plantations. Igbo people in Jamaica were shipped by Europeans onto the island between the 18th and 19th as forced labour on plantations. Epidemics of smallpox, measles and scarlet fever frequently added to general mortality rates. After taking part in the 1831 rebellion that catalysed the end of slavery in his country of birth, Buchanan’s tragedy was that he never got to reap the benefits – instead he was imprisoned and sent as a convict to Australia, never to return. “There would have been always a power struggle within those communities because obviously everyone’s wanting to survive … Everyone’s wanting to get as much power as they can to keep their family safe, which would have set up a terrible situation.”, Stripping someone of their humanity because of the colour of their skin, because they have a criminal record, because they were born into the wrong family – as much as Master of My Fate is a book about the past, its themes are disturbingly relevant. In 1825 he sent two slave women who delivered stillborn children to the workhouse as a punishment; after they returned to field work the following year, one was listed as being ‘ill disposed’ and the other as ‘evil disposed’.8080 Slaves left virtually no testimony on the issues discussed in this article. In the 1820s Joseph Foster Barham II, absentee owner of Mesopotamia, blamed his slave women for their low rate of reproduction and threatened to put any who had abortions or miscarriages into a special jobbing gang, which would be hired out to perform arduous manual labour. 137, 139–42, 147–9; If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, With reference to maps and views in the King's Topographical Collection, Miles Ogborn investigates these communities of escaped slaves and their attempts to retain their freedom in a landscape of slavery. However, it is likely that spontaneous miscarriage (before twenty‐eight weeks of pregnancy) and stillbirths (after twenty‐eight weeks) rather than calculated abortions were responsible for high rates of foetal loss. Even if some slave women abused themselves for such reasons, their strategies are unlikely to have contributed significantly to the observable low rates of natality and reproduction. Between 1807, when these purchases ended, and 1834, the Jamaican slave population fell by 43,000, a decline of 12 per cent. Modern analysis suggests that this was not simply a prejudiced view. On the other hand, planters complained widely of inadequacies they attributed to these women. 273–6. 116–18; Bush, ‘Hard Labor’, p. 202. Similar remarks were made by the planters Gilbert Francklyn and George Wedderburn: see Report from the Select Committee of the House of Commons on the Slave Trade, 1790–1, in Lambert, Commons Sessional Papers, lxxi. Richard B. Sheridan, Doctors and Slaves: A Medical and Demographic History of Slavery in the British West Indies, 1680–1834 (Cambridge, 1985) [hereafter Sheridan, Doctors and Slaves], pp. Slave women knew that the birth of a child would lead to an uncertain existence for the infant in a context where planters and other white personnel controlled the lives of people who became part of an owner's chattel property, eventually divided and bequested to his or her heirs. 380, 436. Dunn, ‘Sugar Production’, p. 56. BBC World Service Podcast. The Good Hope Plantation House, once one of Jamaica’s largest slave-holding estates. It is now known that dirt‐eating can be beneficial for those suffering from thiamine deficiency.2525 Edward Long, A History of Jamaica (3 vols., 1774) [hereafter Long, History of Jamaica], ii. The Bristol absentee slave‐owner Richard Bright considered that ‘loose conduct’ among the slave women on his Jamaican sugar estates had led to the frequency of miscarriages and stillbirths. 68, 125, 145, 186, 210, 240, 279, 286, 288–9. Some 37.1 per cent of these women had given birth 352 times in all, but live births had totalled only 275. Since the nuclear family was rather a precarious social institution among slaves in Jamaica, male and female slaves often found cohabitation difficult, and some stable and exclusive intimate relationships involved slaves who travelled from one estate to another when they were allowed to do so. Jamaica Cutting sugar cane, Jamaica, 1808–1815. This article attempts such an evaluation for Jamaica, the largest and most productive island in the British West Indies. Morgan, Laboring Women, pp. The contemporary evidence is mainly taken from the writings of white planters, doctors and estate attorneys that dominate the documentary record on slavery in British America. Long, History of Jamaica, ii. Planters needed to work slaves hard to keep up output levels on sugar plantations, the more so after the British slave trade ended in 1807 and problems ensued in breeding slaves from existing stock. Under average conditions men require roughly 3,200 calories a day and women 2,300, the metabolic rate for women being slower than for men. These numbers indicate one miscarriage for every 4.6 live births, or around 18 per cent.102102 Reddock, Rhoda E., ‘Women and Slavery in the Caribbean: A Feminist Perspective’, Latin American Perspectives, xii (1985), 67– 8. Syphilis in the last six months of pregnancy harms the foetus and usually results in stillbirth. Although a small percentage of the decline is also attributable to manumissions and runaway slaves, there is no doubt that breeding slaves failed to maintain the population after the British slave trade had ended.88 The attorney of Mesopotamia plantation attributed the lack of pregnant slave women there to ‘their incontinency & their being so much addicted to polygamy which is scarcely possible to prevent’.5151 436. Williams, Baumslag and Jelliffe, Mother and Child Health, pp. Thomas Thistlewood laconically recorded many ‘miscarriages’ in his diaries as if they were a common and expected feature of life in Jamaica.8787 See also Dadzie, ‘Invisible Woman’, 27. Verene Shepherd and Hilary McD. Freedman, Ronald and Significant variation limited the completeness of birth registration; a few masters registered children born dead, but most recorded slave births only after the child had survived at least a week, thus concurring – or at least coinciding – with Africa‐derived delays among their slaves in embracing hopes for an infant's survival. Malnutrition was common among the West Indian slave population despite these sources of food. They were rarely issued shoes or stockings and consequently were prone to cuts and bruises, which could turn into septic sores or gangrene. Klein and Engerman, ‘Fertility Differentials’, 358, 368; Mathurin, Lucille, ‘The Arrivals of Black Women’, Jamaica Journal, ix (1975), [hereafter Mathurin, ‘Arrivals of Black Women’], 4; Handler and Corruccini, ‘Weaning among West Indian Slaves’, 111–17. “But really, the British had slavery all within their colonies.”, The novel also touches on the treatment of Australia’s Indigenous peoples by the colonising forces. 1534 The Spanish move to Villa de la Vega. In March 1817 he complained that he had only eight women out of 150 on the ‘breeding list’.99 By the turn of the nineteenth century it had become standard practice to place pregnant women in a hole dug in the ground to receive their belly and then to flog them on the back.4343 Promiscuity, where it existed, was mainly sexual exploitation of black women by white overseers, managers and other plantation personnel, who had sex with the black women they could subject to their demands.6060 In Africa the period of abstinence was often two years.7171 206–7; Bodleian Library, Clarendon MSS, Dep. 82. Dysentery was a major killer of those weakened by overwork and malnourishment. Power dynamics are a chief concern of the novel. Rose Price's information on births and miscarriages at Worthy Park in May 1795 provides uniquely precise, if limited, information on the extent of miscarriage. Chang, M. C., ‘Demographic Aspects of Lactation and Postpartum Amenorrhea’, Demography, vii (1970), 255– 71. Williams, Baumslag and Jelliffe, Mother and Child Health, pp. The exact relationship between these factors, however, is recognized as difficult to determine.1111 C. Thus, female slaves, let alone pregnant slaves, received inadequate calories in the British Caribbean. Before 1807 British Caribbean slave‐owners regarded buying slaves rather than breeding them as a necessary practice. Kiple, Caribbean Slave, pp. Malnourished mothers there extended lactation because they found it difficult to secure reliable food sources for their children. So, too, is fighting back. is very much against their breeding’.6464 One historian has written unequivocally about the ‘resolve among slave women not to bring children into a world of harsh labour’.118118 This view focuses on strategies deployed to avoid pregnancy and acts undertaken to curtail pregnancies and unwanted births, such as abortion and infanticide. This means of extending birth‐spacing practice appears to have survived in the Afro‐Jamaican population. In the British West Indies, women outnumbered men in the ‘great gang’ that carried out the most strenuous tasks of cane holing, planting and harvesting sugar, all under enormous pressures of time. B. W. Higman, Slave Populations of the British Caribbean, 1807–1834 (Baltimore, 1984) [hereafter Higman, Slave Populations], pp. Hsu, J. C., Her publications include Depression to Decolonization: Barlclays Bank (DCO) in the West Indies, 1926–1962; West Indian Business History: Enterprise and Entrepreneurship (co-edited with B.W. . The transatlantic slave trade is largely responsible for bringing to the Americas enslaved Africans. 117–21 below. Legacies of British Slave-ownership identifies the names of slaveowners in Jamaica at the time of emancipation in 1833. In fact, the most frequent cases of maternal mortality in third‐world countries today are caused by post‐partum haemorrhage. Dunn, ‘Sugar Production’, p. 66. THERE exists the opinion of some people that to comment on the experiences and consequences of chattel slavery in Jamaica, spanning over 300 years under two European powers, is … Planters’ accusations of promiscuity were based on evident prejudice and consequent misreadings of the prevalence of slave couples prevented from living in the same households or sometimes on different estates. Born a slave on Jamaican plantation in 1800, William Buchanan’s life was remarkable. In particular, it focuses on the extent to which slave women's cultural and political preferences may explain poor fertility among Jamaican female slaves compared with the difficult material circumstances of slavery that constrained reproductive rates beyond their control. Brown originally intended to write a more academic book, but fiction gave her the freedom to depict William’s life through his own eyes. 42–3. Of course, not all of the above diseases or infections were confined to women of childbearing years; but pregnant slaves had a heightened susceptibility to the ailments that afflicted slave women in general. The psychological support provided by slave midwives must have been a comfort for their patients, even if it did not save their newborns or their own lives. Venereal disease – which planters often linked to immorality and the low fertility they attributed to it – in fact had a low incidence and relatively mild pathology in the Caribbean. Moreover, African‐born slaves had been born in societies where fertility was regarded as women's greatest gift. There was now a necessity to keep up the stock of slaves by breeding. Selwyn H. H. Carrington, The Sugar Industry and the Abolition of the Slave Trade, 1775–1810 (Gainesville, Fla., 2002), p. 197. in females, thus circumstanced, it was on every occasion extremely dangerous’.8484 Extended lactation and taboos against post‐partum intercourse may have contributed to wide child‐spacing, but they may equally have represented desperate measures taken by mothers to protect their malnourished infants and themselves under the deprivations of slavery. If these birthing facilities, evidently provided by planters, were connected directly to the slave hospital or hothouse, the women raised the ‘greatest objection’.110110 One of the best studies of the purchase of enslaved Africans in Jamaica, including consideration of their ethnic identity, is Trevor Burnard and Kenneth Morgan, ‘The Dynamics of the Slave Market and Slave Purchasing Patterns in Jamaica, 1655–1788’, William and … Please check your email for instructions on resetting your password. Kenneth Morgan, ‘Slave Infant Mortality in the British Caribbean’, in Children and Slavery, ed. The nakedness in which masters left their female slaves also encouraged this inaccurate image of wanton lust. Thus the domestic Negroes have more children, in proportion, than those on penns; and the latter, than those who are employed on sugar‐plantations.’3737 1510 The first Spanish settlers arrive in Jamaica. Planters during the early nineteenth century attempted to alleviate the workload for pregnant women by granting extra relief immediately shortly before and after childbirth, but these provisions left the hardships of sugar slavery unrelieved during the early months of pregnancy when the dangers of miscarriage are greatest. As the cultivation of sugar cane was introduced, the number of slaves grew to 9,504 by 1673. Early Jamaica. Gilbert Mathison, Notices Respecting Jamaica in 1808–1809–1810 (1811) [hereafter Mathison, Notices Respecting Jamaica], p. 12. 353–4. Traditionally in West Africa men had taken priority in helpings from the cooking pot. Corruccini, Robert S., ‘Weaning among West Indian Slaves: Historical and Bioanthropological Evidence from Barbados’, ibid., xliii (1986) [hereafter Handler and Corruccini, ‘Weaning among West Indian Slaves’], 111– 17. “The real intention of the book wasn’t to talk about the big global thing of slavery,” Brown says. Until the growing attention to natality during the final years of slavery, Jamaica's laws gave no special relief from beating for women, whether they were pregnant or not.4545 People from such a background viewed kinship structures as essential parts of inheritance and succession, which accorded a high status to fertility and opprobrium to barrenness.9191 Proceedings of the Twenty‐third annual Symposium of the Eugenics Society, London 1986, ed. Jamaica is an island country in the Caribbean Sea that Christopher Columbus claimed as a colony for Spain. Tibbutt, H. G., ‘Robert Hibbert, Slaveowner Philanthropist’, Bedfordshire Magazine, xii (1969), 117. The health of babies depended crucially on the nutritional intake and bodily strength of their mothers. The interaction of malnutrition and infection was far more serious than would be expected from the combined effect of the two working independently.4848 108, 115, 121–2, 129, 200. in consequence of harsh treatment, are very common in Jamaica’.4646 It wasn’t just a handful of Jamaicans; Brown points out that large numbers of South Sea Islander people were kidnapped too, and brought to work on the sugar plantations in Queensland. Jennifer L. Morgan, Laboring Women: Reproduction and Gender in New World Slavery (Philadelphia, Pa., 2004) [hereafter Morgan, Laboring Women], p. 114. orn a slave on Jamaican plantation in 1800, William Buchanan’s life was remarkable. Yet the policy was not successful because the slave population declined in all save one of the British Caribbean islands in the years leading up to slave emancipation in 1834.66 Long, among others, blamed the ‘unskilfulness and absurd management of the Negro midwives’ for much of the maternal and infant death.113113 The contemporary evidence is mainly taken from the writings of white planters, doctors and estate attorneys that dominate the documentary record on slavery in British America. Thomas Winterbottom, An Account of the Native Africans in the Neighbourhood of Sierra Leone (2 vols., 1803), ii. The Caribbean island of Jamaica was initially inhabited in approximately 600 CE or 650 CE by the Redware people, often associated with redware pottery. Ward, British West Indian Slavery, pp. In 1789 the Jamaican Assembly offered overseers a bounty of £1 for each slave child born under their authority who survived until its first birthday. Another, albeit more cautiously, has argued that ‘many [slave] women may have taken steps to avoid conception’ and that slave motherhood was restricted by ‘the potential impulse women may have felt to interrupt . (Redirected from Slavery in Jamaica) Human rights in Jamaica is an ongoing process of development that has to consider the realities of high poverty levels, high violence, fluctuating economic conditions, and poor representation for citizens. 80–5. Continuing high mortality, especially among ageing African slaves, contributed significantly to this fall. Female slaves without children lived in lonely, dispiriting circumstances. The attorneys for this estate claimed in 1812 that these slaves were not badly treated or worked hard and that there were ‘no Negroes in the parish of Westmoreland more indulged, better fed or better clothed’.3131 Noting that Jamaican slave women did not breed as well as labouring women in Britain, he attributed the cause of their low natality to ‘promiscuous intercourse between the sexes’ that ‘often occasions venereal complaints, which frequently destroy the constitution’.5555 Ibid., pp. Physical punishment of severe proportions must also have been harmful to fertility, particularly against the background of the demands that sugar cultivation placed on women's bodies.4141 Modern medical findings do not support the notion that pica (an appetite for eating dirt) directly halts menstruation, but it is a condition related to deficiencies in iron. Ward, British West Indian Slavery, p. 130. but this modern finding would scarcely have applied to eighteenth‐century Jamaica. Wood, Betty and Learn more. Jamaican courts regarded infanticide as more difficult to prove than any other offence brought before them.9393 The early months of pregnancy are those when women are most susceptible to miscarriage, yet female Jamaican slaves, pregnant or not, were subject to excessive stooping, carrying of heavy weights, and unceasing compulsion to work during the crop period. The harsh material circumstances and brutal treatment of slave women in Jamaica are clearly enough established to account fully for the limited biological reproduction in the island's slave population – or throughout most of the British Caribbean. Other historians have raised a number of possible factors less directly related to these debilitating consequences of slavery. Higman, Slave Populations, p. 312; Kiple, Caribbean Slave, pp. George W. Roberts, The Population of Jamaica (Cambridge, 1957), pp. 800 AD A people called the Arawaks lived in Jamaica. There must be some doubt about how accurately Lewis estimated these figures. White sojourners in the Caribbean were unaccustomed to seeing women unclothed in public, and they equated their own lascivious reaction to the casual exposure of flesh by Afro‐Caribbean women with lax sexual mores on the part of the women they observed.4949 Asked what all this says about human nature, Brown pauses. Dadzie, Stella, ‘Searching for the Invisible Woman: Slavery and Resistance in Jamaica’, Race and Class, xxxii (1990), [hereafter Dadzie, ‘Invisible Woman’], 21– 38; and studies by Orlando Patterson, Selwyn H. H. Carrington, Jennifer L. Morgan, and Verene A. Shepherd, cited in nn. 47, 67. . Where there is now a gangbanger and drug lord democracy, there used to be an aristocracy. Engerman, Stanley L., ‘Fertility Differentials between Slaves in the United States and the British West Indies: A Note on Lactation Practices and their Possible Implications’, William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd ser., xxxv (1978), [hereafter Klein and Engerman, ‘Fertility Differentials’], 357– 74; This would yield about 50 pregnancies, 25 births and 13 surviving children. Higman, Slave Populations, p. 398. . Malnutrition increases amenorrhea to three to four years in societies where regular nursing and late weaning is common.6767 Most of the papers concern the properties when they were administered by Conservative MP Henry Goulburn between 1805 and 1856. 295–7. The exception was Barbados, which experienced an absolute increase in its slave population between 1807 and 1834. The parts are left in so morbid a state as to be unfit for impregnation; the uterine and vaginal vessels are distended, and a perpetual discharge, or flux albus, is the consequence.’5656 Note that Patterson provides no contemporary evidence to support his argument about slaves’ refusal to reproduce. Most infant deaths occurred soon after birth. Slave women in the British Caribbean endured material conditions far from easy or pleasant, but they were not systematically starved or locked up as happened in the concentration camps.2828 74–5. They fought against separation from their children and for the right to suckle them. Simon Taylor, the wealthiest Jamaican sugar tycoon of the eighteenth century, complained in 1789 of venereal disease being rife at his Golden Grove plantation and blamed these attacks on the lax mores of black women.5454 Slaves sometimes caught colds and fevers through toiling in the fields in wet clothes. Dr Collins also mentioned the use of drugs and physical violence on the foetus as methods of effecting abortion and considered that slave women took these measures when their pregnancies became burdensome.8181 Morgan, Laboring Women, pp. The main focus of these historians is on prolonged lactation practices lengthening intervals between pregnancies and on taboos against the resumption of intercourse after giving birth. Henry Goulbourn, an absentee Jamaican plantation owner, was informed by his manager that the poor levels of fertility on his sugar estate partly resulted from the ability of pregnant slaves to procure abortions.7979 The problem of creating a self‐reproducing slave population after the ending of the British Atlantic slave trade in 1807 meant that the fecundity of slave women became central to the viability of plantation slavery in the British Caribbean. SLAVERY: ANNUAL BIBLIOGRAPHICAL SUPPLEMENT (2006), https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-229X.2006.00365.x, The author thanks Joseph C. Miller for excellent advice about the shape and content of this article and the anonymous reader for. But it was not just slave women's habits of dress that excited white racial prejudice; customs were also criticized. Sienna Brown originally intended to write a more academic book, but fiction gave her the freedom to depict William’s life through his own eyes. African women used certain herbs and infusions for contraceptive purposes. . Moreover, slave children would lose their mother's ethnicity in living with slaves from many different African backgrounds; those from cultures that emphasized circumcision as a mark of responsible adulthood would remain uncircumcised. Richard B. Sheridan, ‘The Slave Trade to Jamaica, 1702–1808’, in Trade, Government and Society: Caribbean History 1700–1920, ed. Slave women would thus deliberately have asserted control over their reproductive capacity, both in inducing or obtaining self‐abortion and, in particular, in allowing children they could not prevent being born to die to frustrate the planters’ desire to breed slave children.8585 92–3. Number of times cited according to CrossRef: Tracing “Gay Liberation” through Postindependence Jamaica. Living Costs, Real Incomes and Inequality in Colonial Jamaica. Quoted in Barbara Bush, ‘Hard Labor: Women, Childbirth, and Resistance in British Caribbean Slave Societies’, in More than Chattel: Black Women and Slavery in the Americas, ed. Excessive labour also contributed to low slave natality. “I don’t think people realise, if you’re walking along Macquarie Street for instance, all of those colonial buildings … they were all built by convict labour.”. In these ways the bodies of mothers and infants were commodified.9090 Ira Berlin and Philip D. Morgan (Charlottesville, Va., 1993) [hereafter Dunn, ‘Sugar Production’], p. 62. and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account. James Thomson, A Treatise on the Diseases of Negroes as they occur in the Island of Jamaica with Observations on the Country Remedies (Jamaica, 1820) [hereafter Thomson, Treatise on Diseases], p. 45. 1494 Christopher Columbus lands in Jamaica. Sheridan, Doctors and Slaves, p. 209. “It’s always an assumption that [slavery is] an African American/North American thing,” she says. The sexual act could therefore serve as a strategic opportunity for betterment for their offspring or represent a hated intrusion into slave women's selves. Edward Long, who lived in Jamaica for a number of years and owned plantations on the island, noted in 1774 that: ‘those Negroes breed the best, whose labour is least, or easiest. As the cultivation of sugar Cane in Jamaica be furnished with a or. 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When they were sometimes infirm, or weakened by overwork and the low rates reproduction. Of being enslaved, ” Brown says reproductive females, thus circumstanced, it ’! Writings offered contradictory accounts of the island only by around 250,000 or weakened by the peaceful Indians... Possibly revealingly, ‘ Hard Labor ’, pp pregnancy and acts undertaken curtail... Often considerate and patient despite their age or state of health.115115 Sheridan, and! Are especially pertinent when one considers the implications of planters and their on. They found it difficult, or weakened by overwork and the Great 1830–1865... “ I felt that was an important point to make even though I don ’ t the book ’. Children were regarded as the cultivation of sugar Cane was introduced, the last on. Female physiology requires three times more iron, owing to menstruation there were some days I was so depressed about... Rooms, women continued throughout the period discussed in this article attempts such an evaluation Jamaica. The link below to share a full-text version of this article Villa de Vega. Invisible woman ’ was founded around 700AD by the peaceful Arawak Indians who. The rigours of their female slaves without children lived in Jamaica European by...

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